webob.request -- Request

Request

class webob.request.Request(environ, charset=None, unicode_errors=None, decode_param_names=None, **kw)

The default request implementation

class webob.request.BaseRequest(environ, charset=None, unicode_errors=None, decode_param_names=None, **kw)
GET

Return a MultiDict containing all the variables from the QUERY_STRING.

POST

Return a MultiDict containing all the variables from a form request. Returns an empty dict-like object for non-form requests.

Form requests are typically POST requests, however PUT & PATCH requests with an appropriate Content-Type are also supported.

ResponseClass

alias of Response

accept

Gets and sets the Accept header (HTTP spec section 14.1).

accept_charset

Gets and sets the Accept-Charset header (HTTP spec section 14.2).

accept_encoding

Gets and sets the Accept-Encoding header (HTTP spec section 14.3).

accept_language

Gets and sets the Accept-Language header (HTTP spec section 14.4).

application_url

The URL including SCRIPT_NAME (no PATH_INFO or query string)

as_bytes(skip_body=False)

Return HTTP bytes representing this request. If skip_body is True, exclude the body. If skip_body is an integer larger than one, skip body only if its length is bigger than that number.

authorization

Gets and sets the Authorization header (HTTP spec section 14.8). Converts it using parse_auth and serialize_auth.

classmethod blank(path, environ=None, base_url=None, headers=None, POST=None, **kw)

Create a blank request environ (and Request wrapper) with the given path (path should be urlencoded), and any keys from environ.

The path will become path_info, with any query string split off and used.

All necessary keys will be added to the environ, but the values you pass in will take precedence. If you pass in base_url then wsgi.url_scheme, HTTP_HOST, and SCRIPT_NAME will be filled in from that value.

Any extra keyword will be passed to __init__.

body

Return the content of the request body.

body_file

Input stream of the request (wsgi.input). Setting this property resets the content_length and seekable flag (unlike setting req.body_file_raw).

body_file_raw

Gets and sets the wsgi.input key in the environment.

body_file_seekable

Get the body of the request (wsgi.input) as a seekable file-like object. Middleware and routing applications should use this attribute over .body_file.

If you access this value, CONTENT_LENGTH will also be updated.

cache_control

Get/set/modify the Cache-Control header (HTTP spec section 14.9)

call_application(application, catch_exc_info=False)

Call the given WSGI application, returning (status_string, headerlist, app_iter)

Be sure to call app_iter.close() if it's there.

If catch_exc_info is true, then returns (status_string, headerlist, app_iter, exc_info), where the fourth item may be None, but won't be if there was an exception. If you don't do this and there was an exception, the exception will be raised directly.

client_addr

The effective client IP address as a string. If the HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR header exists in the WSGI environ, this attribute returns the client IP address present in that header (e.g. if the header value is 192.168.1.1, 192.168.1.2, the value will be 192.168.1.1). If no HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR header is present in the environ at all, this attribute will return the value of the REMOTE_ADDR header. If the REMOTE_ADDR header is unset, this attribute will return the value None.

Warning

It is possible for user agents to put someone else's IP or just any string in HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR as it is a normal HTTP header. Forward proxies can also provide incorrect values (private IP addresses etc). You cannot "blindly" trust the result of this method to provide you with valid data unless you're certain that HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR has the correct values. The WSGI server must be behind a trusted proxy for this to be true.

content_length

Gets and sets the Content-Length header (HTTP spec section 14.13). Converts it using int.

content_type

Return the content type, but leaving off any parameters (like charset, but also things like the type in application/atom+xml; type=entry)

If you set this property, you can include parameters, or if you don't include any parameters in the value then existing parameters will be preserved.

cookies

Return a dictionary of cookies as found in the request.

copy()

Copy the request and environment object.

This only does a shallow copy, except of wsgi.input

copy_body()

Copies the body, in cases where it might be shared with another request object and that is not desired.

This copies the body either into a BytesIO object (through setting req.body) or a temporary file.

copy_get()

Copies the request and environment object, but turning this request into a GET along the way. If this was a POST request (or any other verb) then it becomes GET, and the request body is thrown away.

date

Gets and sets the Date header (HTTP spec section 14.8). Converts it using HTTP date.

domain

Returns the domain portion of the host value. Equivalent to:

domain = request.host
if ':' in domain:
    domain = domain.split(':', 1)[0]

This will be equivalent to the domain portion of the HTTP_HOST value in the environment if it exists, or the SERVER_NAME value in the environment if it doesn't. For example, if the environment contains an HTTP_HOST value of foo.example.com:8000, request.domain will return foo.example.com.

Note that this value cannot be set on the request. To set the host value use webob.request.Request.host() instead.

classmethod from_bytes(b)

Create a request from HTTP bytes data. If the bytes contain extra data after the request, raise a ValueError.

classmethod from_file(fp)

Read a request from a file-like object (it must implement .read(size) and .readline()).

It will read up to the end of the request, not the end of the file (unless the request is a POST or PUT and has no Content-Length, in that case, the entire file is read).

This reads the request as represented by str(req); it may not read every valid HTTP request properly.

get_response(application=None, catch_exc_info=False)

Like .call_application(application), except returns a response object with .status, .headers, and .body attributes.

This will use self.ResponseClass to figure out the class of the response object to return.

If application is not given, this will send the request to self.make_default_send_app()

headers

All the request headers as a case-insensitive dictionary-like object.

host

Host name provided in HTTP_HOST, with fall-back to SERVER_NAME

host_port

The effective server port number as a string. If the HTTP_HOST header exists in the WSGI environ, this attribute returns the port number present in that header. If the HTTP_HOST header exists but contains no explicit port number: if the WSGI url scheme is "https" , this attribute returns "443", if the WSGI url scheme is "http", this attribute returns "80" . If no HTTP_HOST header is present in the environ at all, this attribute will return the value of the SERVER_PORT header (which is guaranteed to be present).

host_url

The URL through the host (no path)

http_version

Gets and sets the SERVER_PROTOCOL key in the environment.

if_match

Gets and sets the If-Match header (HTTP spec section 14.24). Converts it as a Etag.

if_modified_since

Gets and sets the If-Modified-Since header (HTTP spec section 14.25). Converts it using HTTP date.

if_none_match

Gets and sets the If-None-Match header (HTTP spec section 14.26). Converts it as a Etag.

if_range

Gets and sets the If-Range header (HTTP spec section 14.27). Converts it using IfRange object.

if_unmodified_since

Gets and sets the If-Unmodified-Since header (HTTP spec section 14.28). Converts it using HTTP date.

is_body_readable

webob.is_body_readable is a flag that tells us that we can read the input stream even though CONTENT_LENGTH is missing.

is_body_seekable

Gets and sets the webob.is_body_seekable key in the environment.

is_xhr

Is X-Requested-With header present and equal to XMLHttpRequest?

Note: this isn't set by every XMLHttpRequest request, it is only set if you are using a Javascript library that sets it (or you set the header yourself manually). Currently Prototype and jQuery are known to set this header.

json

Access the body of the request as JSON

json_body

Access the body of the request as JSON

make_body_seekable()

This forces environ['wsgi.input'] to be seekable. That means that, the content is copied into a BytesIO or temporary file and flagged as seekable, so that it will not be unnecessarily copied again.

After calling this method the .body_file is always seeked to the start of file and .content_length is not None.

The choice to copy to BytesIO is made from self.request_body_tempfile_limit

make_tempfile()

Create a tempfile to store big request body. This API is not stable yet. A 'size' argument might be added.

max_forwards

Gets and sets the Max-Forwards header (HTTP spec section 14.31). Converts it using int.

method

Gets and sets the REQUEST_METHOD key in the environment.

params

A dictionary-like object containing both the parameters from the query string and request body.

path

The path of the request, without host or query string

path_info

Gets and sets the PATH_INFO key in the environment.

path_info_peek()

Returns the next segment on PATH_INFO, or None if there is no next segment. Doesn't modify the environment.

path_info_pop(pattern=None)

'Pops' off the next segment of PATH_INFO, pushing it onto SCRIPT_NAME, and returning the popped segment. Returns None if there is nothing left on PATH_INFO.

Does not return '' when there's an empty segment (like /path//path); these segments are just ignored.

Optional pattern argument is a regexp to match the return value before returning. If there is no match, no changes are made to the request and None is returned.

path_qs

The path of the request, without host but with query string

path_url

The URL including SCRIPT_NAME and PATH_INFO, but not QUERY_STRING

pragma

Gets and sets the Pragma header (HTTP spec section 14.32).

query_string

Gets and sets the QUERY_STRING key in the environment.

range

Gets and sets the Range header (HTTP spec section 14.35). Converts it using Range object.

referer

Gets and sets the Referer header (HTTP spec section 14.36).

referrer

Gets and sets the Referer header (HTTP spec section 14.36).

relative_url(other_url, to_application=False)

Resolve other_url relative to the request URL.

If to_application is True, then resolve it relative to the URL with only SCRIPT_NAME

remote_addr

Gets and sets the REMOTE_ADDR key in the environment.

remote_user

Gets and sets the REMOTE_USER key in the environment.

remove_conditional_headers(remove_encoding=True, remove_range=True, remove_match=True, remove_modified=True)

Remove headers that make the request conditional.

These headers can cause the response to be 304 Not Modified, which in some cases you may not want to be possible.

This does not remove headers like If-Match, which are used for conflict detection.

scheme

Gets and sets the wsgi.url_scheme key in the environment.

script_name

Gets and sets the SCRIPT_NAME key in the environment.

send(application=None, catch_exc_info=False)

Like .call_application(application), except returns a response object with .status, .headers, and .body attributes.

This will use self.ResponseClass to figure out the class of the response object to return.

If application is not given, this will send the request to self.make_default_send_app()

server_name

Gets and sets the SERVER_NAME key in the environment.

server_port

Gets and sets the SERVER_PORT key in the environment. Converts it using int.

text

Get/set the text value of the body

upath_info

Gets and sets the PATH_INFO key in the environment.

url

The full request URL, including QUERY_STRING

url_encoding

Gets and sets the webob.url_encoding key in the environment.

urlargs

Return any positional variables matched in the URL.

Takes values from environ['wsgiorg.routing_args']. Systems like routes set this value.

urlvars

Return any named variables matched in the URL.

Takes values from environ['wsgiorg.routing_args']. Systems like routes set this value.

uscript_name

Gets and sets the SCRIPT_NAME key in the environment.

user_agent

Gets and sets the User-Agent header (HTTP spec section 14.43).