webob – Request/Response objectsFalse

RequestFalse

class webob.request.BaseRequest(environ, charset=None, unicode_errors=None, decode_param_names=None, **kw)False
GETFalse

Return a MultiDict containing all the variables from the QUERY_STRING.

POSTFalse

Return a MultiDict containing all the variables from a form request. Returns an empty dict-like object for non-form requests.

Form requests are typically POST requests, however PUT & PATCH requests with an appropriate Content-Type are also supported.

ResponseClassFalse

alias of Response

acceptFalse

Gets and sets the Accept header (HTTP spec section 14.1).

accept_charsetFalse

Gets and sets the Accept-Charset header (HTTP spec section 14.2).

accept_encodingFalse

Gets and sets the Accept-Encoding header (HTTP spec section 14.3).

accept_languageFalse

Gets and sets the Accept-Language header (HTTP spec section 14.4).

application_urlFalse

The URL including SCRIPT_NAME (no PATH_INFO or query string)

as_bytes(skip_body=False)False

Return HTTP bytes representing this request. If skip_body is True, exclude the body. If skip_body is an integer larger than one, skip body only if its length is bigger than that number.

authorizationFalse

Gets and sets the Authorization header (HTTP spec section 14.8). Converts it using parse_auth and serialize_auth.

classmethod blank(path, environ=None, base_url=None, headers=None, POST=None, **kw)False

Create a blank request environ (and Request wrapper) with the given path (path should be urlencoded), and any keys from environ.

The path will become path_info, with any query string split off and used.

All necessary keys will be added to the environ, but the values you pass in will take precedence. If you pass in base_url then wsgi.url_scheme, HTTP_HOST, and SCRIPT_NAME will be filled in from that value.

Any extra keyword will be passed to __init__.

bodyFalse

Return the content of the request body.

body_fileFalse

Input stream of the request (wsgi.input). Setting this property resets the content_length and seekable flag (unlike setting req.body_file_raw).

body_file_rawFalse

Gets and sets the wsgi.input key in the environment.

body_file_seekableFalse

Get the body of the request (wsgi.input) as a seekable file-like object. Middleware and routing applications should use this attribute over .body_file.

If you access this value, CONTENT_LENGTH will also be updated.

cache_controlFalse

Get/set/modify the Cache-Control header (HTTP spec section 14.9)

call_application(application, catch_exc_info=False)False

Call the given WSGI application, returning (status_string, headerlist, app_iter)

Be sure to call app_iter.close() if it’s there.

If catch_exc_info is true, then returns (status_string, headerlist, app_iter, exc_info), where the fourth item may be None, but won’t be if there was an exception. If you don’t do this and there was an exception, the exception will be raised directly.

client_addrFalse

The effective client IP address as a string. If the HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR header exists in the WSGI environ, this attribute returns the client IP address present in that header (e.g. if the header value is 192.168.1.1, 192.168.1.2, the value will be 192.168.1.1). If no HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR header is present in the environ at all, this attribute will return the value of the REMOTE_ADDR header. If the REMOTE_ADDR header is unset, this attribute will return the value None.

Warning

It is possible for user agents to put someone else’s IP or just any string in HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR as it is a normal HTTP header. Forward proxies can also provide incorrect values (private IP addresses etc). You cannot “blindly” trust the result of this method to provide you with valid data unless you’re certain that HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR has the correct values. The WSGI server must be behind a trusted proxy for this to be true.

content_lengthFalse

Gets and sets the Content-Length header (HTTP spec section 14.13). Converts it using int.

content_typeFalse

Return the content type, but leaving off any parameters (like charset, but also things like the type in application/atom+xml; type=entry)

If you set this property, you can include parameters, or if you don’t include any parameters in the value then existing parameters will be preserved.

cookiesFalse

Return a dictionary of cookies as found in the request.

copy()False

Copy the request and environment object.

This only does a shallow copy, except of wsgi.input

copy_body()False

Copies the body, in cases where it might be shared with another request object and that is not desired.

This copies the body in-place, either into a BytesIO object or a temporary file.

copy_get()False

Copies the request and environment object, but turning this request into a GET along the way. If this was a POST request (or any other verb) then it becomes GET, and the request body is thrown away.

dateFalse

Gets and sets the Date header (HTTP spec section 14.8). Converts it using HTTP date.

domainFalse

Returns the domain portion of the host value. Equivalent to:

domain = request.host
if ':' in domain:
    domain = domain.split(':', 1)[0]

This will be equivalent to the domain portion of the HTTP_HOST value in the environment if it exists, or the SERVER_NAME value in the environment if it doesn’t. For example, if the environment contains an HTTP_HOST value of foo.example.com:8000, request.domain will return foo.example.com.

Note that this value cannot be set on the request. To set the host value use webob.request.Request.host() instead.

classmethod from_bytes(b)False

Create a request from HTTP bytes data. If the bytes contain extra data after the request, raise a ValueError.

classmethod from_file(fp)False

Read a request from a file-like object (it must implement .read(size) and .readline()).

It will read up to the end of the request, not the end of the file (unless the request is a POST or PUT and has no Content-Length, in that case, the entire file is read).

This reads the request as represented by str(req); it may not read every valid HTTP request properly.

get_response(application=None, catch_exc_info=False)False

Like .call_application(application), except returns a response object with .status, .headers, and .body attributes.

This will use self.ResponseClass to figure out the class of the response object to return.

If application is not given, this will send the request to self.make_default_send_app()

headersFalse

All the request headers as a case-insensitive dictionary-like object.

hostFalse

Host name provided in HTTP_HOST, with fall-back to SERVER_NAME

host_portFalse

The effective server port number as a string. If the HTTP_HOST header exists in the WSGI environ, this attribute returns the port number present in that header. If the HTTP_HOST header exists but contains no explicit port number: if the WSGI url scheme is “https” , this attribute returns “443”, if the WSGI url scheme is “http”, this attribute returns “80” . If no HTTP_HOST header is present in the environ at all, this attribute will return the value of the SERVER_PORT header (which is guaranteed to be present).

host_urlFalse

The URL through the host (no path)

http_versionFalse

Gets and sets the SERVER_PROTOCOL key in the environment.

if_matchFalse

Gets and sets the If-Match header (HTTP spec section 14.24). Converts it as a Etag.

if_modified_sinceFalse

Gets and sets the If-Modified-Since header (HTTP spec section 14.25). Converts it using HTTP date.

if_none_matchFalse

Gets and sets the If-None-Match header (HTTP spec section 14.26). Converts it as a Etag.

if_rangeFalse

Gets and sets the If-Range header (HTTP spec section 14.27). Converts it using IfRange object.

if_unmodified_sinceFalse

Gets and sets the If-Unmodified-Since header (HTTP spec section 14.28). Converts it using HTTP date.

is_body_readableFalse

webob.is_body_readable is a flag that tells us that we can read the input stream even though CONTENT_LENGTH is missing. This allows FakeCGIBody to work and can be used by servers to support chunked encoding in requests. For background see https://bitbucket.org/ianb/webob/issue/6

is_body_seekableFalse

Gets and sets the webob.is_body_seekable key in the environment.

is_xhrFalse

Is X-Requested-With header present and equal to XMLHttpRequest?

Note: this isn’t set by every XMLHttpRequest request, it is only set if you are using a Javascript library that sets it (or you set the header yourself manually). Currently Prototype and jQuery are known to set this header.

jsonFalse

Access the body of the request as JSON

json_bodyFalse

Access the body of the request as JSON

make_body_seekable()False

This forces environ['wsgi.input'] to be seekable. That means that, the content is copied into a BytesIO or temporary file and flagged as seekable, so that it will not be unnecessarily copied again.

After calling this method the .body_file is always seeked to the start of file and .content_length is not None.

The choice to copy to BytesIO is made from self.request_body_tempfile_limit

make_tempfile()False

Create a tempfile to store big request body. This API is not stable yet. A ‘size’ argument might be added.

max_forwardsFalse

Gets and sets the Max-Forwards header (HTTP spec section 14.31). Converts it using int.

methodFalse

Gets and sets the REQUEST_METHOD key in the environment.

paramsFalse

A dictionary-like object containing both the parameters from the query string and request body.

pathFalse

The path of the request, without host or query string

path_infoFalse

Gets and sets the PATH_INFO key in the environment.

path_info_peek()False

Returns the next segment on PATH_INFO, or None if there is no next segment. Doesn’t modify the environment.

path_info_pop(pattern=None)False

‘Pops’ off the next segment of PATH_INFO, pushing it onto SCRIPT_NAME, and returning the popped segment. Returns None if there is nothing left on PATH_INFO.

Does not return '' when there’s an empty segment (like /path//path); these segments are just ignored.

Optional pattern argument is a regexp to match the return value before returning. If there is no match, no changes are made to the request and None is returned.

path_qsFalse

The path of the request, without host but with query string

path_urlFalse

The URL including SCRIPT_NAME and PATH_INFO, but not QUERY_STRING

pragmaFalse

Gets and sets the Pragma header (HTTP spec section 14.32).

query_stringFalse

Gets and sets the QUERY_STRING key in the environment.

rangeFalse

Gets and sets the Range header (HTTP spec section 14.35). Converts it using Range object.

refererFalse

Gets and sets the Referer header (HTTP spec section 14.36).

referrerFalse

Gets and sets the Referer header (HTTP spec section 14.36).

relative_url(other_url, to_application=False)False

Resolve other_url relative to the request URL.

If to_application is True, then resolve it relative to the URL with only SCRIPT_NAME

remote_addrFalse

Gets and sets the REMOTE_ADDR key in the environment.

remote_userFalse

Gets and sets the REMOTE_USER key in the environment.

remove_conditional_headers(remove_encoding=True, remove_range=True, remove_match=True, remove_modified=True)False

Remove headers that make the request conditional.

These headers can cause the response to be 304 Not Modified, which in some cases you may not want to be possible.

This does not remove headers like If-Match, which are used for conflict detection.

schemeFalse

Gets and sets the wsgi.url_scheme key in the environment.

script_nameFalse

Gets and sets the SCRIPT_NAME key in the environment.

send(application=None, catch_exc_info=False)False

Like .call_application(application), except returns a response object with .status, .headers, and .body attributes.

This will use self.ResponseClass to figure out the class of the response object to return.

If application is not given, this will send the request to self.make_default_send_app()

server_nameFalse

Gets and sets the SERVER_NAME key in the environment.

server_portFalse

Gets and sets the SERVER_PORT key in the environment. Converts it using int.

str_GETFalse

<Deprecated attribute str_GET>

str_POSTFalse

<Deprecated attribute str_POST>

str_cookiesFalse

<Deprecated attribute str_cookies>

str_paramsFalse

<Deprecated attribute str_params>

textFalse

Get/set the text value of the body

upath_infoFalse

Gets and sets the PATH_INFO key in the environment.

urlFalse

The full request URL, including QUERY_STRING

url_encodingFalse

Gets and sets the webob.url_encoding key in the environment.

urlargsFalse

Return any positional variables matched in the URL.

Takes values from environ['wsgiorg.routing_args']. Systems like routes set this value.

urlvarsFalse

Return any named variables matched in the URL.

Takes values from environ['wsgiorg.routing_args']. Systems like routes set this value.

uscript_nameFalse

Gets and sets the SCRIPT_NAME key in the environment.

user_agentFalse

Gets and sets the User-Agent header (HTTP spec section 14.43).

ResponseFalse

class webob.response.Response(body=None, status=None, headerlist=None, app_iter=None, content_type=None, conditional_response=None, **kw)False

Represents a WSGI response

accept_rangesFalse

Gets and sets the Accept-Ranges header (HTTP spec section 14.5).

ageFalse

Gets and sets the Age header (HTTP spec section 14.6). Converts it using int.

allowFalse

Gets and sets the Allow header (HTTP spec section 14.7). Converts it using list.

app_iterFalse

Returns the app_iter of the response.

If body was set, this will create an app_iter from that body (a single-item list)

app_iter_range(start, stop)False

Return a new app_iter built from the response app_iter, that serves up only the given start:stop range.

bodyFalse

The body of the response, as a str. This will read in the entire app_iter if necessary.

body_fileFalse

A file-like object that can be used to write to the body. If you passed in a list app_iter, that app_iter will be modified by writes.

cache_controlFalse

Get/set/modify the Cache-Control header (HTTP spec section 14.9)

charsetFalse

Get/set the charset (in the Content-Type)

conditional_response_app(environ, start_response)False

Like the normal __call__ interface, but checks conditional headers:

  • If-Modified-Since (304 Not Modified; only on GET, HEAD)
  • If-None-Match (304 Not Modified; only on GET, HEAD)
  • Range (406 Partial Content; only on GET, HEAD)
content_dispositionFalse

Gets and sets the Content-Disposition header (HTTP spec section 19.5.1).

content_encodingFalse

Gets and sets the Content-Encoding header (HTTP spec section 14.11).

content_languageFalse

Gets and sets the Content-Language header (HTTP spec section 14.12). Converts it using list.

content_lengthFalse

Gets and sets the Content-Length header (HTTP spec section 14.17). Converts it using int.

content_locationFalse

Gets and sets the Content-Location header (HTTP spec section 14.14).

content_md5False

Gets and sets the Content-MD5 header (HTTP spec section 14.14).

content_rangeFalse

Gets and sets the Content-Range header (HTTP spec section 14.16). Converts it using ContentRange object.

content_typeFalse

Get/set the Content-Type header (or None), without the charset or any parameters.

If you include parameters (or ; at all) when setting the content_type, any existing parameters will be deleted; otherwise they will be preserved.

content_type_paramsFalse

A dictionary of all the parameters in the content type.

(This is not a view, set to change, modifications of the dict would not be applied otherwise)

copy()False

Makes a copy of the response

dateFalse

Gets and sets the Date header (HTTP spec section 14.18). Converts it using HTTP date.

Delete a cookie from the client. Note that path and domain must match how the cookie was originally set.

This sets the cookie to the empty string, and max_age=0 so that it should expire immediately.

encode_content(encoding='gzip', lazy=False)False

Encode the content with the given encoding (only gzip and identity are supported).

etagFalse

Gets and sets the ETag header (HTTP spec section 14.19). Converts it using Entity tag.

expiresFalse

Gets and sets the Expires header (HTTP spec section 14.21). Converts it using HTTP date.

classmethod from_file(fp)False

Reads a response from a file-like object (it must implement .read(size) and .readline()).

It will read up to the end of the response, not the end of the file.

This reads the response as represented by str(resp); it may not read every valid HTTP response properly. Responses must have a Content-Length

headerlistFalse

The list of response headers

headersFalse

The headers in a dictionary-like object

jsonFalse

Access the body of the response as JSON

json_bodyFalse

Access the body of the response as JSON

last_modifiedFalse

Gets and sets the Last-Modified header (HTTP spec section 14.29). Converts it using HTTP date.

locationFalse

Gets and sets the Location header (HTTP spec section 14.30).

md5_etag(body=None, set_content_md5=False)False

Generate an etag for the response object using an MD5 hash of the body (the body parameter, or self.body if not given)

Sets self.etag If set_content_md5 is True sets self.content_md5 as well

merge_cookies(resp)False

Merge the cookies that were set on this response with the given resp object (which can be any WSGI application).

If the resp is a webob.Response object, then the other object will be modified in-place.

pragmaFalse

Gets and sets the Pragma header (HTTP spec section 14.32).

retry_afterFalse

Gets and sets the Retry-After header (HTTP spec section 14.37). Converts it using HTTP date or delta seconds.

serverFalse

Gets and sets the Server header (HTTP spec section 14.38).

Set (add) a cookie for the response.

Arguments are:

name

The cookie name.

value

The cookie value, which should be a string or None. If value is None, it’s equivalent to calling the webob.response.Response.unset_cookie() method for this cookie key (it effectively deletes the cookie on the client).

max_age

An integer representing a number of seconds, datetime.timedelta, or None. This value is used as the Max-Age of the generated cookie. If expires is not passed and this value is not None, the max_age value will also influence the Expires value of the cookie (Expires will be set to now + max_age). If this value is None, the cookie will not have a Max-Age value (unless expires is set). If both max_age and expires are set, this value takes precedence.

path

A string representing the cookie Path value. It defaults to /.

domain

A string representing the cookie Domain, or None. If domain is None, no Domain value will be sent in the cookie.

secure

A boolean. If it’s True, the secure flag will be sent in the cookie, if it’s False, the secure flag will not be sent in the cookie.

httponly

A boolean. If it’s True, the HttpOnly flag will be sent in the cookie, if it’s False, the HttpOnly flag will not be sent in the cookie.

comment

A string representing the cookie Comment value, or None. If comment is None, no Comment value will be sent in the cookie.

expires

A datetime.timedelta object representing an amount of time, datetime.datetime or None. A non-None value is used to generate the Expires value of the generated cookie. If max_age is not passed, but this value is not None, it will influence the Max-Age header. If this value is None, the Expires cookie value will be unset (unless max_age is set). If max_age is set, it will be used to generate the expires and this value is ignored.

overwrite

If this key is True, before setting the cookie, unset any existing cookie.
statusFalse

The status string

status_codeFalse

The status as an integer

status_intFalse

The status as an integer

textFalse

Get/set the text value of the body (using the charset of the Content-Type)

ubodyFalse

Deprecated alias for .text

unicode_bodyFalse

Deprecated alias for .text

Unset a cookie with the given name (remove it from the response).

varyFalse

Gets and sets the Vary header (HTTP spec section 14.44). Converts it using list.

www_authenticateFalse

Gets and sets the WWW-Authenticate header (HTTP spec section 14.47). Converts it using parse_auth and serialize_auth.

class webob.response.AppIterRange(app_iter, start, stop)False

Wraps an app_iter, returning just a range of bytes

HeadersFalse

Accept-*False

Parses a variety of Accept-* headers.

These headers generally take the form of:

value1; q=0.5, value2; q=0

Where the q parameter is optional. In theory other parameters exists, but this ignores them.

class webob.acceptparse.Accept(header_value)False

Represents a generic Accept-* style header.

This object should not be modified. To add items you can use accept_obj + 'accept_thing' to get a new object

best_match(offers, default_match=None)False

Returns the best match in the sequence of offered types.

The sequence can be a simple sequence, or you can have (match, server_quality) items in the sequence. If you have these tuples then the client quality is multiplied by the server_quality to get a total. If two matches have equal weight, then the one that shows up first in the offers list will be returned.

But among matches with the same quality the match to a more specific requested type will be chosen. For example a match to text/* trumps /.

default_match (default None) is returned if there is no intersection.

first_match(offers)False

DEPRECATED Returns the first allowed offered type. Ignores quality. Returns the first offered type if nothing else matches; or if you include None at the end of the match list then that will be returned.

static parse(value)False

Parse Accept-* style header.

Return iterator of (value, quality) pairs. quality defaults to 1.

quality(offer, modifier=1)False

Return the quality of the given offer. Returns None if there is no match (not 0).

class webob.acceptparse.MIMEAccept(header_value)False

Represents the Accept header, which is a list of mimetypes.

This class knows about mime wildcards, like image/*

accept_html()False

Returns true if any HTML-like type is accepted

accepts_htmlFalse

Returns true if any HTML-like type is accepted

Cache-ControlFalse

class webob.cachecontrol.CacheControl(properties, type)False

Represents the Cache-Control header.

By giving a type of 'request' or 'response' you can control what attributes are allowed (some Cache-Control values only apply to requests or responses).

copy()False

Returns a copy of this object.

classmethod parse(header, updates_to=None, type=None)False

Parse the header, returning a CacheControl object.

The object is bound to the request or response object updates_to, if that is given.

update_dictFalse

alias of UpdateDict

ETagFalse

class webob.etag.ETagMatcher(etags)False
classmethod parse(value, strong=True)False

Parse this from a header value

CookiesFalse

class webob.cookies.CookieProfile(cookie_name, secure=False, max_age=None, httponly=None, path='/', domains=None, serializer=None)False

A helper class that helps bring some sanity to the insanity that is cookie handling.

The helper is capable of generating multiple cookies if necessary to support subdomains and parent domains.

cookie_name
The name of the cookie used for sessioning. Default: 'session'.
max_age
The maximum age of the cookie used for sessioning (in seconds). Default: None (browser scope).
secure
The ‘secure’ flag of the session cookie. Default: False.
httponly
Hide the cookie from Javascript by setting the ‘HttpOnly’ flag of the session cookie. Default: False.
path
The path used for the session cookie. Default: '/'.
domains
The domain(s) used for the session cookie. Default: None (no domain). Can be passed an iterable containing multiple domains, this will set multiple cookies one for each domain.
serializer
An object with two methods: loads and dumps. The loads method should accept a bytestring and return a Python object. The dumps method should accept a Python object and return bytes. A ValueError should be raised for malformed inputs. Default: None, which will use a derivation of json.dumps() and json.loads().
bind(request)False

Bind a request to a copy of this instance and return it

get_headers(value, domains=<object object>, max_age=<object object>, path=<object object>, secure=<object object>, httponly=<object object>)False

Retrieve raw headers for setting cookies.

Returns a list of headers that should be set for the cookies to be correctly tracked.

get_value()False

Looks for a cookie by name in the currently bound request, and returns its value. If the cookie profile is not bound to a request, this method will raise a ValueError.

Looks for the cookie in the cookies jar, and if it can find it it will attempt to deserialize it. Returns None if there is no cookie or if the value in the cookie cannot be successfully deserialized.

set_cookies(response, value, domains=<object object>, max_age=<object object>, path=<object object>, secure=<object object>, httponly=<object object>)False

Set the cookies on a response.

class webob.cookies.SignedCookieProfile(secret, salt, cookie_name, secure=False, max_age=None, httponly=False, path='/', domains=None, hashalg='sha512', serializer=None)False

A helper for generating cookies that are signed to prevent tampering.

By default this will create a single cookie, given a value it will serialize it, then use HMAC to cryptographically sign the data. Finally the result is base64-encoded for transport. This way a remote user can not tamper with the value without uncovering the secret/salt used.

secret
A string which is used to sign the cookie. The secret should be at least as long as the block size of the selected hash algorithm. For sha512 this would mean a 128 bit (64 character) secret.
salt
A namespace to avoid collisions between different uses of a shared secret.
hashalg
The HMAC digest algorithm to use for signing. The algorithm must be supported by the hashlib library. Default: 'sha512'.
cookie_name
The name of the cookie used for sessioning. Default: 'session'.
max_age
The maximum age of the cookie used for sessioning (in seconds). Default: None (browser scope).
secure
The ‘secure’ flag of the session cookie. Default: False.
httponly
Hide the cookie from Javascript by setting the ‘HttpOnly’ flag of the session cookie. Default: False.
path
The path used for the session cookie. Default: '/'.
domains
The domain(s) used for the session cookie. Default: None (no domain). Can be passed an iterable containing multiple domains, this will set multiple cookies one for each domain.
serializer
An object with two methods: loads` and dumps. The loads method should accept bytes and return a Python object. The dumps method should accept a Python object and return bytes. A ValueError should be raised for malformed inputs. Default: None`, which will use a derivation of :func:`json.dumps` and ``json.loads.
bind(request)False

Bind a request to a copy of this instance and return it

class webob.cookies.SignedSerializer(secret, salt, hashalg='sha512', serializer=None)False

A helper to cryptographically sign arbitrary content using HMAC.

The serializer accepts arbitrary functions for performing the actual serialization and deserialization.

secret
A string which is used to sign the cookie. The secret should be at least as long as the block size of the selected hash algorithm. For sha512 this would mean a 128 bit (64 character) secret.
salt
A namespace to avoid collisions between different uses of a shared secret.
hashalg
The HMAC digest algorithm to use for signing. The algorithm must be supported by the hashlib library. Default: 'sha512'.
serializer
An object with two methods: loads` and dumps. The loads method should accept bytes and return a Python object. The dumps method should accept a Python object and return bytes. A ValueError should be raised for malformed inputs. Default: None`, which will use a derivation of :func:`json.dumps` and ``json.loads.
dumps(appstruct)False

Given an appstruct, serialize and sign the data.

Returns a bytestring.

loads(bstruct)False

Given a bstruct (a bytestring), verify the signature and then deserialize and return the deserialized value.

A ValueError will be raised if the signature fails to validate.

class webob.cookies.JSONSerializerFalse

A serializer which uses json.dumps` and json.loads

Generate a cookie value. If value is None, generate a cookie value with an expiration date in the past

Misc Functions and InternalsFalse

webob.html_escape(s)False

HTML-escape a string or object

This converts any non-string objects passed into it to strings (actually, using unicode()). All values returned are non-unicode strings (using &#num; entities for all non-ASCII characters).

None is treated specially, and returns the empty string.

class webob.headers.ResponseHeaders(*args, **kw)False

Dictionary view on the response headerlist. Keys are normalized for case and whitespace.

class webob.headers.EnvironHeaders(environ)False

An object that represents the headers as present in a WSGI environment.

This object is a wrapper (with no internal state) for a WSGI request object, representing the CGI-style HTTP_* keys as a dictionary. Because a CGI environment can only hold one value for each key, this dictionary is single-valued (unlike outgoing headers).

Gives a multi-value dictionary object (MultiDict) plus several wrappers

class webob.multidict.MultiDict(*args, **kw)False

An ordered dictionary that can have multiple values for each key. Adds the methods getall, getone, mixed and extend and add to the normal dictionary interface.

add(key, value)False

Add the key and value, not overwriting any previous value.

dict_of_lists()False

Returns a dictionary where each key is associated with a list of values.

classmethod from_fieldstorage(fs)False

Create a dict from a cgi.FieldStorage instance

getall(key)False

Return a list of all values matching the key (may be an empty list)

getone(key)False

Get one value matching the key, raising a KeyError if multiple values were found.

mixed()False

Returns a dictionary where the values are either single values, or a list of values when a key/value appears more than once in this dictionary. This is similar to the kind of dictionary often used to represent the variables in a web request.

classmethod view_list(lst)False

Create a dict that is a view on the given list

class webob.multidict.NestedMultiDict(*dicts)False

Wraps several MultiDict objects, treating it as one large MultiDict

class webob.multidict.NoVars(reason=None)False

Represents no variables; used when no variables are applicable.

This is read-only

class webob.cachecontrol.UpdateDictFalse

Dict that has a callback on all updates